Basic knowledge of woven fabrics

- 2021-11-24-

Basic knowledge of woven fabrics

A cloth traditionally woven by shuttles that move the weft back and forth through the warp. Generally, there are obvious edge organizations on both sides, and the fabric, whether grey or finished, is planar. And knitted fabric fabric is usually cylindrical, the finished product after opening shape becomes flat.


一、Concept of yarn count density

How to express the different specifications of the different fabrics? Yarn count density is an important index.

Yarn count: generally contact with the British count, the specific definition is: the number of British count of cotton yarn: the common weight of one pound of cotton yarn, 840 yards, called several British count. For example: contains 32 840 yards, is called 32 British branch, and so on, the higher the number, the finer the yarn. The British branch is usually denoted by s.

At the same time, there is the index Daniel to indicate the thickness of the fiber, he is the opposite of the British branch, the higher the fiber is thicker. Specific definition is: fixed length 9000 m, weight 1 g =1 D, if 9000 meters long fiber weight 70 grams, it is 70D. In English, it is 76s

Daniel is usually used to describe finer fibers, such as nylon, polyester, spandex, etc

Density: The number of warp and weft roots per inch is called density. We have a density mirror, and the size in the box is 1 ", and you count the density as many roots as you can.

For example: 20x16/128x60, which means the warp is 20s, the filling is 16s, and there are 128 warp and 68 wefts per inch. This is only the most basic cloth, and there are many more complicated fabrics, and the expression method of yarn count density is correspondingly more complicated.

Generally speaking, the density of non-elastic fabrics refers to the yarn density of grey cloth, and the density of finished products will change accordingly. Most non-stretch fabrics have a blank width of 47 "or 63", while their finished fabric is 44 "or 58" wide, respectively. Taking 128x60/20x16 as an example, 47 "x 128/44" =136. So the finished warp density of this cloth should be about 136. And the filling density in the finished product before and after basically no change, up to 1-2 up and down.

Grey cloth in the dyeing and finishing process after layer upon layer of treatment to lose some weight, so the finished yarn will be thinner than grey cloth yarn 1-2. Make sure you know when you're testing.

Elastic cloth is generally about the density of the finished product.

二、Concepts of various organizational structures

In addition to the yarn count density, another important indicator of what a piece of cloth looks like is the fabric's organizational structure. Generally speaking, there are mainly the following kinds。

1. Plain weave fabric, the warp and weft yarn is one up and one down, for the most basic weaving way. The thinner, lighter plain fabric is called poplin, and the thicker plain fabric is called canvas.

2. Twill fabric, there are 3 common, 2/1, 3/1, 2/2, a few up and down refers to the ups and downs of the warp. 3/1 means that the warp floats on top of three wefts, sinks under one, and then floats on top of three. This kind of fabric is called yarn or thread.

3. Gongsatin-type fabric, generally 4/1, but also 5/3, this is more complex, as long as it is understood that this kind of cloth surface gloss is strong this characteristic can be. More direct tribute.

4. Dobby: Dobby is finished on complex dobby looms. Dobby looms are dobby dobby. Such as square, wick, herringword oblique, satin, are small jacquard.

5. Velvet plants, mainly corduroy, velvet. The main characteristic of corduroy is that the weft density is much higher than the warp density. Because the weft is opened to become a pile yarn.

三、Different dyeing and finishing methods

Generally speaking, there are two ways of dyeing and finishing woven fabrics, one is dyeing and the other is yarn-dyed.

Dyeing refers to the weaving of grey cloth, and then sent to the dyeing factory, after desizing, burning, cooking, mercerization, (wool grinding) dyeing, shaping, pre-shrinkage, softness and other processes to obtain the color cloth. Most of the printing process is the same, mainly to change the dyeing process into printing.

Dyeing is also divided into long car continuous dyeing and cylinder dyeing two kinds.

Yarn-dyed means that the yarn is dyed well and then warped, sizing, weaving and finishing to get the finished cloth. Yarn-dyed cloth to grid, stripes flower - based.

四、The difference between various dyes

There are basically four kinds of dyes, the most important of which are reactive dyed and VAT dyed. The color fastness of shilin is the best. But it's important to note that one dye can't cover all the colors, and some colors can only be done with one dye, such as navy blue, which can only be done with activity. The chromatogram of shilin is mainly light color.

There is a kind of coating, after washing, fade badly, often for the pursuit of washing after the old sense of guests used. Very poor colour fastness before washing, fair after washing.

There are vulcanized dyes, basically eliminated, used for corduroy black, color fastness is poor, and cotton fibers have strong corrosion. The tear strength is poor over time.

五、Key test metrics

It can be divided into two categories: physical index and color fastness

Physical indicators include: yarn count density, weight, tensile strength, tear strength, PH, shrinkage, composition, flame retardant and so on.

Color fastness includes washing, staining, rubbing, light, chlorine bleaching, non-chlorine bleaching, actual washing color change, etc.

On the test, the general customer is allowed to make only one color for the physical index and can save the cost.

Generally, the test cloth must undergo special treatment to ensure that it passes.

六、Approximate production cycle

Take 30,000 meters as an example to talk about the general cycle:

Dyed prints: ready-made grey prints, about 2 weeks. In case of grey fabric, 35-40 days.

Yarn-dyed fabric: about 35 days.